In the previous article I demonstrated how to add a custom function to change the formatting of the packet output in the console or do some sort of custom action with each packet. That example passed the function (a Callable) without any additional args. When the prn passed function is called (with each packet), it receives a single argument of the packet that was just sniffed.

Using nested functions to harness the power of closure, you can bind any number of arguments to the function that is executed on each packet by Scapy. In order to bind additional arguments to the prn function, we have to use nested functions (similar to a decorator). Check out this example, created to upload the scapy packet info to an API via the Python Requests module:

This may seem a little strange, but here’s an order-of-events explanation for what’s happening:

  1. We define our url & token variables, just like in the first example.
  2. We define the custom_action function. This will be run when the scapy sniff function first runs to get the value info for the prn argument. Note the two parameters that we pass into custom_action.
  3. Inside custom_action, we create another function that takes the scapy implicitly passed packet as a parameter. This is the function that will upload the packet info to our API.
  4. The upload_packet function is nested in custom_action so it has access to the url & token variables because it is inside the parent function’s scope.
  5. The return value of custom_action is the upload_packet function, so this function will be run along with every sniffed packet based on the prn argument. Even though the custom_action function is not executed to take in the url & token parameters, they are locked into the nested upload_packet function due to Python’s capacity for ‘closure’.
  6. After we define the custom_action and nested upload_packet functions, we run the Scapy sniff function with the returned value of custom_action passed via the prn argument.

Using closures to ‘lock-in’ any number of arguments to the custom_action function gives us much more flexibility. I was able to modularize my file in order to clean up my Scapy sniffing script.

Here’s another example that achieves the same affect using functools.partial to close in the url & token arguments:

See how I was able to move a big chunk of verbose packet protocol checking into a separate module by looking at my two python files in this project: Scapy-to-API

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